Bakers and Pastrycooks
Bakers and Pastrycooks prepare and bake bread loaves and rolls, buns, cakes, biscuits and pastry goods.
checking the cleanliness of equipment and operation of premises before production runs to ensure compliance with occupational health and safety regulations
checking the quality of raw materials and weighing ingredients
kneading, maturing, cutting, moulding, mixing and shaping dough and pastry goods
preparing pastry fillings
monitoring oven temperatures and product appearance to determine baking times
coordinating the forming, loading, baking, unloading, de-panning and cooling of batches of bread, rolls and pastry products
glazing buns and pastries, and decorating cakes with cream and icing
operating machines which roll and mould dough and cut biscuits
emptying, cleaning and greasing baking trays, tins and other cooking equipment
Vocational Education and Training (VET)
Informal or on-the-job
JSA produces employment projections to show where likely future job opportunities may be. The latest data are for the five years from November 2021 to November 2026. Over this period, the number of workers in this occupation is likely to remain stable.
Source: Jobs and Skills Australia Employment Projections to 2026.
Notes: The number employed includes people who work in this occupation as their main job. People who work in more than one job are counted against the occupation they work the most hours in.
Employment projections figures are rounded to the nearest 100. Calculations based on these rounded figures may result in differences to the numbers that are displayed on this page. Employment projections data (including occupations) can be downloaded from the Employment Projections page.
Number of Workers
Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, ABS seasonally adjusted data to November 2021 and Jobs and Skills Australia Employment Projections to 2026.
Earnings and hours
Around 72% of people employed as Bakers and Pastrycooks work full-time hours, in all their jobs combined. This is 6 percentage points above the all jobs average (66%).
Full-time workers work an average of 44 hours per week in their main job. This is the same as the all jobs average.
Median full-time earnings are $1,196 per week, this is much lower than the all jobs median ($1,593):
- 3 in 4 workers earn more than $1,143
- 1 in 4 earn more than $1,346
Median hourly earnings are $31, this is lower than the all jobs median ($41 per hour).
Sources: Full-time share and full-time hours: ABS, 2016 Census, customised report. Compared to the all jobs average. Full-time median earnings and median hourly earnings: ABS, Survey of Employee Earnings and Hours, May 2021. Compared to all jobs median.
Weekly Earnings (Before Tax)
|Earnings||Bakers and Pastrycooks||All Jobs Average|
Source: Based on ABS Survey of Employee Earnings and Hours, May 2021, Customised Report. Median weekly total cash earnings for full-time non-managerial employees paid at the adult rate. Earnings are before tax and include amounts salary sacrificed. Earnings can vary greatly depending on the skills and experience of the worker and the demands of the role. These figures should be used as a guide only, not to determine a wage rate.
Most Bakers and Pastrycooks work in the Manufacturing industry. They are also employed in industries like:
Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, annual average 2021.
Employment across Australia
Employment by State and Territory (% Share)
|State||Bakers and Pastrycooks||All Jobs Average|
Around 62% of Bakers and Pastrycooks live in capital cities, similar to the all jobs average of 62%.
Victoria has a large share of employment relative to its population size.
Source: Based on ABS Census 2016, Customised Report. Share of workers across Australian states, territories and regions, in this job compared to the all jobs average.
Age and gender
The median age of Bakers and Pastrycooks is 35 years. This is younger than the all jobs average of 40 years.
A large share of workers are aged 25 to 34 years.
Females make up 32% of the workforce. This is 16 percentage points below the all jobs average of 48%.
Source: Based on ABS Census 2016, Customised Report. Age profile and gender share compared to the all jobs average.
Age Profile (% Share)
|Age Bracket||Bakers and Pastrycooks||All Jobs Average|
|65 and Over||1.7||4.2|
Source: Based on ABS Census 2016, Customised Report. Age profile of workers in this job compared to the all jobs average.
Education, training and experience
Formal qualifications are not essential to work as a Baker or Pastrycook. Although some workers have a certificate III or IV in retail baking or patisserie. These courses are often completed as part of an apprenticeship.
- My Skills to compare Vocational Education and Training (VET) courses, providers and student outcomes.
- AAPathways website to explore Tourism, Travel and Hospitality VET training pathways.
Highest Level of Education (% Share)
|Type of Qualification||Bakers and Pastrycooks||All Jobs Average|
|Post Graduate/Graduate Diploma or Graduate Certificate||1.9||10.1|
|Year 10 and below||14.2||12.5|
Source: ABS Census 2016, Customised Report. Highest qualification completed by workers in this job (in any field of study). Qualifications needed by new workers might be different from the qualifications of workers already in the job.
Skills and Knowledge
Employers look for Bakers and Pastrycooks who are reliable, motivated and are willing to take direction.
Skills can be improved through training or experience.
Being able to use what you have learnt to solve problems now and again in the future.
Thinking about the pros and cons of different ways to solve a problem.
Keeping track of how well work is progressing so you can make changes or improvements.
41%Coordination with others
Being adaptable and coordinating work with other people.
Talking to others.
Listening to others, not interrupting, and asking good questions.
39%Judgment and decision making
Figuring out the pros and cons of different options and choosing the best one.
Reading work related information.
Managing your own and other peoples' time to get work done.
Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.
Understanding why people react the way they do.
32%Quality control analysis
Doing tests and checking products, services, or processes to make sure they are working properly.
Looking for ways to help people.
Using maths to solve problems.
Writing things for co-workers or customers.
29%Complex problem solving
Noticing a problem and figuring out the best way to solve it.
Figuring out the best way to teach or learn something new.
29%Operation and control
Controlling equipment or systems.
Bringing people together and trying to sort out their differences.
Figuring out why a machine or system went wrong and working out what to do about it.
These are important topics, subjects or knowledge areas.
61%Production and processing
Raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and ways of making and distributing goods.
Planting, growing, and harvesting food (both plant and animal), including storage and handling.
51%Customer and personal service
Understanding customer needs, providing good quality service, and measuring customer satisfaction.
Arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, or statistics.
39%Education and training
Curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.
English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
33%Sales and marketing
Showing, promoting, and selling including marketing strategy, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.
32%Administration and management
Business principles involved in strategic planning, leadership, and coordinating people and resources.
31%Computers and electronics
Circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.
29%Public safety and security
Use of equipment, rules and ideas to protect people, data, property, and institutions.
Design techniques, tools, and principles used to make detailed technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.
Word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office work.
24%Engineering and technology
Use engineering, science and technology to design and produce goods and services.
24%Personnel and human resources
Recruiting and training people, managing pay and other entitlements (like sick leave), and negotiating pay and conditions.
The physical laws of matter, motion and energy, and how they interact through space and time.
Machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.
Moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road.
20%Law and government
How our laws and courts work. Government rules and regulations, and the political system.
Foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.
14%Economics and accounting
Economics and accounting, the financial markets, banking and checking and reporting of financial data.
Workers use these physical and mental abilities..
See details that are up-close (within a few feet).
Listen to and understand what people say.
Notice differences between colours, including shades of colour and brightness.
Communicate by speaking.
Come up with different ways of grouping things.
Put together small parts with your fingers.
Use your eyes to quickly compare groups of letters, numbers, pictures, or other things.
Pay attention to something without being distracted.
43%Sorting or ordering
Order or arrange things in a pattern or sequence (e.g., numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).
Imagine how something will look after it is moved around or changed.
Keep your hand or arm steady.
Use general rules to find answers or solve problems logically.
Quickly move your hand to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.
Read and understand written information.
Use lots of detailed information to come up with answers or make general rules.
Notice when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong, even if you can't solve the problem.
Identify and understand the speech of another person.
Quickly change the controls of a machine, car, truck or boat.
36%Flexibility of closure
See a pattern (a figure, object, word, or sound) hidden in other distracting material.
Speak clearly so others can understand you.
These are kinds of activities workers regularly do in this job.
54%Looking for changes over time
Comparing objects, actions, or events. Looking for differences between them or changes over time.
50%Planning and prioritising work
Deciding on goals and putting together a detailed plan to get the work done.
50%Handling and moving objects
Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, moving and manipulating objects.
46%Building good relationships
Building good working relationships and keeping them over time.
41%Making decisions and solving problems
Using information to work out the best solution and solve problems.
40%Checking for errors or defects
Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials for errors, problems or defects.
38%Communicating within a team
Giving information to co-workers by telephone, in writing, or in person.
38%Training and teaching others
Understanding the needs of others, developing training programs, and teaching or instructing.
38%Researching and investigating
Looking for, getting and understanding different kinds of information.
38%Assessing and evaluating things
Working out the value, importance, or quality of things, services or people.
38%Coordinating the work of a team
Getting members of a group to work together to finish a task.
37%Monitoring people, processes and things
Checking objects, actions, or events, and keeping an eye out for problems.
36%Doing physically active work
Use your arms, legs and whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling objects.
35%Coaching and developing others
Working out the needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or helping them to improve.
Using your own ideas for developing, designing, or creating something new.
30%Helping and caring for others
Providing personal assistance, medical attention, or emotional support.
29%Negotiating and resolving conflicts
Handling complaints and disagreements, and negotiating with people.
28%Guiding and directing staff
Guiding and directing staff, including setting and monitoring performance standards.
23%Checking compliance with standards
Deciding whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.
22%Estimating amounts, costs and resources
Working out sizes, distances, amounts, time, costs, resources, or materials needed for a task.
Interests and demands
Learn about the daily activities, and physical and social demands faced by workers. Explore the values and work styles that workers rate as most important.
Interests are the style or type of work we prefer to do. All interest areas are shown below.
Practical, hands-on work. Often with plants and animals, or materials like wood, tools, and machinery.
Following set procedures and routines. Working with numbers and details more than with ideas, usually following rules.
Starting up and carrying out projects. Leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes require risk taking and often deal with business.
Working with forms, designs and patterns. Often need self-expression and can be done without following rules.
Ideas and thinking. Searching for facts and figuring out problems in your head.
Working with people. Helping or providing service to others.
Results oriented. Workers are able to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment.
Work alone and make decisions. Workers are able to try out their own ideas, make decisions on their own, and work with little or no supervision.
Supportive management that stands behind employees. Workers are treated fairly by their company, they are supported by management, and have supervisors who train them well.
Advancement and the potential to lead. Workers are recognised for the work that they do, they may give directions and instructions to others, and they are looked up to in their company and their community.
Serve and work with others. Workers usually get along well with each other, do things to help other people, and are rarely pressured to do things that go against their sense of right and wrong.
Job security and good working conditions. There is usually a steady flow of interesting work, and the pay and conditions are generally good.
88%Contact with people
Have contact with people by telephone, face-to-face, or any other way.
88%Spend time standing
Spend time standing at work.
Work to strict deadlines.
Talk with people face-to-face.
Have freedom to decide on tasks, priorities, and goals.
84%Being exact or accurate
Be very exact or highly accurate.
84%Freedom to make decisions
Have freedom to make decision on your own.
83%Wear common protective or safety equipment
Wear equipment like safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets.
81%Using your hands to handle, control, or feel
Spend time using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls.
80%Very hot or cold temperatures
Work in very hot or cold temperatures.
Work with people in a group or team.
77%Minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings
Be exposed to minor burns, cuts, bites, or stings.
Talk on the telephone.
75%Impact of decisions
Make decisions that have a large impact on other people.
74%Health and safety of others
Take responsibility for the health and safety of others.
74%Indoors, heat controlled
Work indoors with access to heating or cooling.
73%Making repetitive motions
Spend time making repetitive motions.
72%Frequent decision making
Frequently make decisions that impact other people.
71%Lead or coordinate a team
Lead others to do work activities.
68%Contact with the public
Work with customers or the public.
O*NET is a trademark of the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration.
The skills and importance ratings on this page are derived from the US Department of Labor O*NET Database Version 21.2, 51-3011.00 - Bakers.
Links and downloads
Research and reports
The Skills Priority List provides a current labour market rating and a future demand rating for nearly 800 occupations nationally. Current labour market ratings are available for occupations at a state and territory level.
Occupation profiles data are available for download.
The Employment Projections are available for download.