Crop Farm Workers

ANZSCO ID 8412

Overview

Snapshot

Employed
17,500
Future Growth
3.5%
Weekly Earnings
$1,210
Full-Time Share
61%
Female Share
31%
Average age
37

Summary

Crop Farm Workers perform routine tasks in producing crops such as fruit, nuts, grains, vegetables and mushrooms.

Tasks

  • planting trees, seeds, seedlings, roots, bulbs, vines and other plants using hand tools and farm machines

  • building trellises for climbing vegetables and vines

  • operating farm machines to cultivate, fertilise, spray and harvest fruit, nuts, grains and vegetables

  • spraying trees, vines and other plants with chemicals to control weed growth, insects, fungus growth and diseases

  • thinning, weeding and hoeing row crops, and pruning trees and vines

  • irrigating land for crop growth

  • selecting and picking fruit, nuts, grains and vegetables according to size and ripeness, and discarding rotting and over-ripened produce

  • grading, sorting, bunching and packing produce into containers

  • loading filled fruit, nut, grain and vegetable containers onto trucks

Characteristics

Job Type
Labourers
Skill Level
Entry level
ANZSCO Occupation group
Unemployment Rate
Above average
Industries
Pathway(s)
  • Vocational Education and Training (VET)
  • Informal or on-the-job
Interests
  • Practical
Physical Demand
  • Light
  • Medium
  • Heavy

Outlook

Employment Outlook

The NSC produces employment projections to show where likely future job opportunities may be. The latest data are for the five years from November 2021 to November 2026. Over this period, the number of workers:

  • is expected to grow moderately
  • is likely to reach 19,300 by 2026.
  • Source: National Skills Commission Employment Projections to 2026.

    Notes: The number employed includes people who work in this occupation as their main job. People who work in more than one job are counted against the occupation they work the most hours in.

    Employment projections figures are rounded to the nearest 100. Calculations based on these rounded figures may result in differences to the numbers that are displayed on this page. Employment projections data (including occupations) can be downloaded from the Employment Projections page.

Projected Change
3.5%
(or 700 jobs)
From
18,700
in 2021
To
19,300
in 2026

Number of Workers

Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, ABS seasonally adjusted data to November 2021 and National Skills Commission Employment Projections to 2026.
Year Employment
2011 21,600
2012 15,000
2013 21,400
2014 18,800
2015 26,200
2016 26,000
2017 23,500
2018 21,600
2019 21,800
2020 28,300
2021 18,700
2026 19,300

Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, ABS seasonally adjusted data to November 2021 and National Skills Commission Employment Projections to 2026.


Earnings and hours

Working arrangements

  • Around 61% of people employed as Crop Farm Workers work full-time hours, in all their jobs combined. This is 5 percentage points below the all jobs average (66%).

    Full-time workers work an average of 43 hours per week in their main job. This is similar to the all jobs average (44 hours per week).

    Median full-time earnings are $1,210 per week, this is much lower than the all jobs median ($1,593):

    • 3 in 4 workers earn more than $950
    • 1 in 4 earn more than $1,554

    Median hourly earnings are $31, this is lower than the all jobs median ($41 per hour).

    Sources: Full-time share and full-time hours: ABS, 2016 Census, customised report. Compared to the all jobs average. Full-time median earnings and median hourly earnings: ABS, Survey of Employee Earnings and Hours, May 2021. Compared to all jobs median.

Weekly Earnings (Before Tax)

Source: Based on ABS Survey of Employee Earnings and Hours, May 2021, Customised Report. Median weekly total cash earnings for full-time non-managerial employees paid at the adult rate. Earnings are before tax and include amounts salary sacrificed. Earnings can vary greatly depending on the skills and experience of the worker and the demands of the role. These figures should be used as a guide only, not to determine a wage rate.
Earnings Crop Farm Workers All Jobs Average
Full-Time Earnings 1,210 1,593
Total Earnings 0 0

Source: Based on ABS Survey of Employee Earnings and Hours, May 2021, Customised Report. Median weekly total cash earnings for full-time non-managerial employees paid at the adult rate. Earnings are before tax and include amounts salary sacrificed. Earnings can vary greatly depending on the skills and experience of the worker and the demands of the role. These figures should be used as a guide only, not to determine a wage rate.


Industries

Main industries

1
Agriculture, Forestry and Fishing
88.7%
2
Manufacturing
4.9%
3
Retail Trade
2.3%
4
Wholesale Trade
1.1%
5
Other industries
1.9%

Regions

Employment across Australia

NSW

18.1% All occupations: 31.6%

VIC

17.5% All occupations: 25.6%

QLD

33.2% All occupations: 20.0%

SA

16.0% All occupations: 7.0%

WA

10.1% All occupations: 10.8%

TAS

4.7% All occupations: 2.0%

NT

0.3% All occupations: 1.0%

ACT

0.1% All occupations: 1.9%

Employment by State and Territory (% Share)

State Crop Farm Workers All Jobs Average
NSW 18.1 31.6
VIC 17.5 25.6
QLD 33.2 20.0
SA 16.0 7.0
WA 10.1 10.8
TAS 4.7 2.0
NT 0.3 1.0
ACT 0.1 1.9


  • Around 80% of Crop Farm Workers live outside of capital cities, compared with the all jobs average of 38%.

    Queensland and South Australia have a large share of employment relative to their population size.

    The regions with the largest share of workers are:

    Source: Based on ABS Census 2016, Customised Report. Share of workers across Australian states, territories and regions, in this job compared to the all jobs average.


Worker profile

Age and gender

Age In Years
37
All Jobs Average is 40
Female Share
31%
All Jobs Average is 48%
  • The median age of Crop Farm Workers is 37 years. This is similar to the all jobs average of 40 years.

    A large share of workers are aged 25 to 34 years.

    Females make up 31% of the workforce. This is 17 percentage points below the all jobs average of 48%.

    Source: Based on ABS Census 2016, Customised Report. Age profile and gender share compared to the all jobs average.

Age Profile (% Share)

Source: Based on ABS Census 2016, Customised Report. Age profile of workers in this job compared to the all jobs average.
Age Bracket Crop Farm Workers All Jobs Average
15-19 5.2 5.0
20-24 14.2 9.3
25-34 26.1 22.9
35-44 16.6 22.0
45-54 18.1 21.6
55-59 8.4 9.0
60-64 6.4 6.0
65 and Over 5.1 4.2
Median Age 37 40

Source: Based on ABS Census 2016, Customised Report. Age profile of workers in this job compared to the all jobs average.


Employment Pathways

Education, training and experience

Formal qualifications are not usually required to work as a Crop Farm Worker. Some workers have a certificate II or III in agriculture, production horticulture or rural operations.

Visit

  • My Skills to compare Vocational Education and Training (VET) courses, providers and student outcomes.
  • AAPathways website to explore Agriculture, Horticulture and Conservation & Land Management VET training pathways.

Highest Level of Education (% Share)

Source: ABS Census 2016, Customised Report. Highest qualification completed by workers in this job (in any field of study). Qualifications needed by new workers might be different from the qualifications of workers already in the job.
Type of Qualification Crop Farm Workers All Jobs Average
Post Graduate/Graduate Diploma or Graduate Certificate 1.7 10.1
Bachelor degree 8.5 21.8
Advanced Diploma/Diploma 5.5 11.6
Certificate III/IV 15.7 21.1
Year 12 26.0 18.1
Year 11 7.6 4.8
Year 10 and below 34.9 12.5

Source: ABS Census 2016, Customised Report. Highest qualification completed by workers in this job (in any field of study). Qualifications needed by new workers might be different from the qualifications of workers already in the job.


Skills and Knowledge

Employers look for Crop Farm Workers who are reliable, hardworking and physically fit.

Skills

Skills can be improved through training or experience.

  • 43%

    Coordination with others

    Being adaptable and coordinating work with other people.

  • 43%

    Monitoring

    Keeping track of how well work is progressing so you can make changes or improvements.

  • 43%

    Operation and control

    Controlling equipment or systems.

  • 43%

    Operation monitoring

    Watching gauges, dials, or other indicators to make sure a machine is working properly.

  • 39%

    Critical thinking

    Thinking about the pros and cons of different ways to solve a problem.

  • 39%

    Equipment maintenance

    Maintaining equipment and deciding what maintenance will be needed in the future.

  • 39%

    Management of personnel resources

    Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, and choosing the best people for the job.

  • 39%

    Repairing

    Fixing machines or systems.

  • 36%

    Active listening

    Listening to others, not interrupting, and asking good questions.

  • 36%

    Judgment and decision making

    Figuring out the pros and cons of different options and choosing the best one.

  • 36%

    Complex problem solving

    Noticing a problem and figuring out the best way to solve it.

  • 36%

    Instructing

    Teaching people how to do something.

  • 36%

    Time management

    Managing your own and other peoples' time to get work done.

  • 34%

    Speaking

    Talking to others.

  • 34%

    Active learning

    Being able to use what you have learnt to solve problems now and again in the future.

  • 34%

    Learning strategies

    Figuring out the best way to teach or learn something new.

  • 32%

    Equipment selection

    Deciding on the kind of tools and equipment needed to do a job.

  • 32%

    Quality control analysis

    Doing tests and checking products, services, or processes to make sure they are working properly.

  • 32%

    Social perceptiveness

    Understanding why people react the way they do.

  • 29%

    Reading comprehension

    Reading work related information.


Knowledge

These are important topics, subjects or knowledge areas.

  • 39%

    Food production

    Planting, growing, and harvesting food (both plant and animal), including storage and handling.

  • 36%

    Education and training

    Curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.

  • 34%

    Production and processing

    Raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and ways of making and distributing goods.

  • 31%

    English language

    English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.

  • 26%

    Mechanical

    Machines and tools, including their designs, uses, repair, and maintenance.

  • 24%

    Mathematics

    Arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, or statistics.

  • 23%

    Clerical

    Word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office work.

  • 22%

    Chemistry

    Chemical composition, structure, and properties. How chemicals are made, used, mixed, and can change.

  • 22%

    Customer and personal service

    Understanding customer needs, providing good quality service, and measuring customer satisfaction.

  • 21%

    Transportation

    Moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road.

  • 21%

    Sales and marketing

    Showing, promoting, and selling including marketing strategy, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.

  • 21%

    Administration and management

    Business principles involved in strategic planning, leadership, and coordinating people and resources.

  • 21%

    Biology

    Plant and animal organisms, their tissues, cells, functions, how they rely on and work with each other and the environment.

  • 18%

    Personnel and human resources

    Recruiting and training people, managing pay and other entitlements (like sick leave), and negotiating pay and conditions.

  • 17%

    Public safety and security

    Use of equipment, rules and ideas to protect people, data, property, and institutions.

  • 15%

    Economics and accounting

    Economics and accounting, the financial markets, banking and checking and reporting of financial data.

  • 13%

    Building and construction

    Materials, and methods used to construct or repair houses, buildings, or other structures like highways and roads.

  • 13%

    Communications and media

    Media production, communication, and dissemination. Includes written, spoken, and visual media.

  • 7%

    Technical design

    Design techniques, tools, and principles used to make detailed technical plans, blueprints, drawings, and models.

  • 5%

    Engineering and technology

    Use engineering, science and technology to design and produce goods and services.


Abilities

Workers use these physical and mental abilities..

  • 57%

    Control precision

    Quickly change the controls of a machine, car, truck or boat.

  • 54%

    Multilimb coordination

    Use your arms and/or legs at the same time while sitting, standing, or lying down.

  • 48%

    Trunk strength

    Use your abdominal and lower back muscles a number of times without 'giving out' or fatiguing.

  • 46%

    Manual dexterity

    Quickly move your hand to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.

  • 45%

    Oral expression

    Communicate by speaking.

  • 43%

    Extent flexibility

    Bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.

  • 43%

    Oral comprehension

    Listen to and understand what people say.

  • 41%

    Problem spotting

    Notice when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong, even if you can't solve the problem.

  • 41%

    Reaction time

    Quickly move your hand, finger, or foot when a sound, light, picture or something else appears.

  • 41%

    Speech recognition

    Identify and understand the speech of another person.

  • 39%

    Categorising

    Come up with different ways of grouping things.

  • 39%

    Far vision

    See details that are far away.

  • 39%

    Rate control

    Change when and how fast you move based on how something else is moving.

  • 39%

    Speech clarity

    Speak clearly so others can understand you.

  • 38%

    Depth perception

    Decide which thing is closer or further away from you, or decide how far away it is.

  • 38%

    Finger dexterity

    Put together small parts with your fingers.

  • 36%

    Deductive reasoning

    Use general rules to find answers or solve problems logically.

  • 36%

    Near vision

    See details that are up-close (within a few feet).

  • 36%

    Sorting or ordering

    Order or arrange things in a pattern or sequence (e.g., numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).

  • 34%

    Arm-hand steadiness

    Keep your hand or arm steady.


Activities

These are kinds of activities workers regularly do in this job.

  • 60%

    Handling and moving objects

    Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, moving and manipulating objects.

  • 42%

    Doing physically active work

    Use your arms, legs and whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling objects.

  • 39%

    Driving vehicles or equipment

    Running, manoeuvring, navigating, or driving things like forklifts, vehicles, aircraft, or water craft.

  • 37%

    Looking for changes over time

    Comparing objects, actions, or events. Looking for differences between them or changes over time.

  • 34%

    Controlling equipment or machines

    Operating machines or processes either directly or using controls (not including computers or vehicles).

  • 31%

    Building good relationships

    Building good working relationships and keeping them over time.

  • 30%

    Researching and investigating

    Looking for, getting and understanding different kinds of information.

  • 27%

    Training and teaching others

    Understanding the needs of others, developing training programs, and teaching or instructing.

  • 27%

    Guiding and directing staff

    Guiding and directing staff, including setting and monitoring performance standards.

  • 24%

    Planning and prioritising work

    Deciding on goals and putting together a detailed plan to get the work done.

  • 22%

    Coordinating the work of a team

    Getting members of a group to work together to finish a task.

  • 22%

    Leading and encouraging a team

    Encouraging and building trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.

  • 21%

    Working with mechanical equipment

    Servicing, repairing, adjusting, and testing machines, devices, moving parts, and equipment.

  • 21%

    Estimating amounts, costs and resources

    Working out sizes, distances, amounts, time, costs, resources, or materials needed for a task.

  • 21%

    Communicating within a team

    Giving information to co-workers by telephone, in writing, or in person.

  • 20%

    Coaching and developing others

    Working out the needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or helping them to improve.

  • 20%

    Assessing and evaluating things

    Working out the value, importance, or quality of things, services or people.

  • 20%

    Monitoring people, processes and things

    Checking objects, actions, or events, and keeping an eye out for problems.

  • 18%

    Checking compliance with standards

    Deciding whether events or processes comply with laws, regulations, or standards.

  • 15%

    Checking for errors or defects

    Inspecting equipment, structures, or materials for errors, problems or defects.


Interests and demands

Learn about the daily activities, and physical and social demands faced by workers. Explore the values and work styles that workers rate as most important.

Interests

Interests are the style or type of work we prefer to do. All interest areas are shown below.

  • 100%

    Practical

    Practical, hands-on work. Often with plants and animals, or materials like wood, tools, and machinery.

  • 29%

    Administrative

    Following set procedures and routines. Working with numbers and details more than with ideas, usually following rules.

  • 19%

    Analytical

    Ideas and thinking. Searching for facts and figuring out problems in your head.

  • 14%

    Creative

    Working with forms, designs and patterns. Often need self-expression and can be done without following rules.

  • 14%

    Enterprising

    Starting up and carrying out projects. Leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes require risk taking and often deal with business.

  • 14%

    Helping

    Working with people. Helping or providing service to others.


Values

Work values are important to a person’s feeling of satisfaction. All six values are shown below.
  • 52%

    Relationships

    Serve and work with others. Workers usually get along well with each other, do things to help other people, and are rarely pressured to do things that go against their sense of right and wrong.

  • 52%

    Support

    Supportive management that stands behind employees. Workers are treated fairly by their company, they are supported by management, and have supervisors who train them well.

  • 29%

    Working conditions

    Job security and good working conditions. There is usually a steady flow of interesting work, and the pay and conditions are generally good.

  • 24%

    Achievement

    Results oriented. Workers are able to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment.

  • 24%

    Independence

    Work alone and make decisions. Workers are able to try out their own ideas, make decisions on their own, and work with little or no supervision.

  • 19%

    Recognition

    Advancement and the potential to lead. Workers are recognised for the work that they do, they may give directions and instructions to others, and they are looked up to in their company and their community.


Demands

The physical and social demands that workers face most often are shown below:
  • 99%

    Outdoors, exposed to weather

    Work outdoors, exposed to the weather.

  • 92%

    Using your hands to handle, control, or feel

    Spend time using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls.

  • 90%

    Exposure to contaminants

    Be exposed to pollutants, gases, dust or odours.

  • 89%

    Face-to-face discussions

    Talk with people face-to-face.

  • 85%

    Pace of work set by equipment

    Pace of work depends on the speed of equipment or machinery.

  • 84%

    Health and safety of others

    Take responsibility for the health and safety of others.

  • 84%

    In an open vehicle or equipment

    Work in an open vehicle (e.g., a tractor).

  • 83%

    Teamwork

    Work with people in a group or team.

  • 81%

    Lead or coordinate a team

    Lead others to do work activities.

  • 79%

    Wear common protective or safety equipment

    Wear equipment like safety shoes, glasses, gloves, hard hats or life jackets.

  • 79%

    Automation of tasks

    Do tasks that are mostly automated.

  • 78%

    Consequence of error

    Work where mistakes have serious consequences.

  • 77%

    Being exact or accurate

    Be very exact or highly accurate.

  • 76%

    Unstructured work

    Have freedom to decide on tasks, priorities, and goals.

  • 75%

    In an enclosed vehicle or equipment

    Work in a closed vehicle (e.g., car).

  • 70%

    Bending or twisting your body

    Spend time bending or twisting your body.

  • 70%

    Freedom to make decisions

    Have freedom to make decision on your own.

  • 66%

    Impact of decisions

    Make decisions that have a large impact on other people.

  • 65%

    Making repetitive motions

    Spend time making repetitive motions.

  • 64%

    Responsible for outcomes

    Take responsibility for the results of other people's work.

Occupational Information Network
O*NET is a trademark of the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration.
The skills and importance ratings on this page are derived from the US Department of Labor O*NET Database Version 21.2, 45-2092.02 - Farmworkers and Laborers, Crop.


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