Waiters

ANZSCO ID 4315

Overview

Snapshot

Employed
127,000
Future Growth
12%
Weekly Earnings
$1,000
Full-Time Share
16%
Female Share
76%
Average age
22

Summary

Waiters serve food and beverages in hotels, restaurants, clubs and dining establishments.

Also known as: Food and Beverage Attendant.

Specialisations: Drink Waiter, Formal Service Waiter, Silver Service Waiter, Sommelier, Wine Steward.

Formal qualifications are not essential to work as a Waiter. Although some workers have a Vocational Education and Training (VET) qualification in a related area like hospitality.

Tasks

  • setting and arranging tables

  • greeting customers and presenting them with menus and beverage lists

  • taking orders and relaying them to kitchen and bar staff

  • serving food and beverages

  • opening bottles and pouring beverages

  • clearing tables and returning dishes and cutlery to kitchen

  • removing empty bottles and used glasses from tables, and refilling and replacing glasses

  • collecting payments for sales and operating point of sales machines and cash registers

  • may recommend wines to complement food

Characteristics

Job Type
Community And Personal Service Workers
Skill Level
Lower skill
ANZSCO Occupation group
Unemployment Rate
Above average
Industries
Pathway(s)
  • Vocational Education and Training (VET)
  • Informal or on-the-job
Interests
  • Practical
  • Administrative
  • Enterprising
  • Helping
Physical Demand
  • Medium

Outlook

Employment Outlook

The NSC produces employment projections to show where likely future job opportunities may be. The latest data are for the five years from November 2021 to November 2026. Over this period, the number of workers:

  • is expected to grow strongly
  • is likely to reach 140,300 by 2026.

Source: National Skills Commission Employment Projections to 2026.

Notes: The number employed includes people who work in this occupation as their main job. People who work in more than one job are counted against the occupation they work the most hours in.

Employment projections figures are rounded to the nearest 100. Calculations based on these rounded figures may result in differences to the numbers that are displayed on this page. Employment projections data (including occupations) can be downloaded from the Employment Projections page.

Projected Change
12%
(or 15,000 jobs)
From
125,300
in 2021
To
140,300
in 2026

Number of Workers

Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, ABS seasonally adjusted data to November 2021 and National Skills Commission Employment Projections to 2026.
Year Employment
2011 114,300
2012 115,000
2013 110,700
2014 122,700
2015 126,400
2016 119,400
2017 133,300
2018 128,500
2019 129,200
2020 102,900
2021 125,300
2026 140,300

Source: ABS Labour Force Survey, ABS seasonally adjusted data to November 2021 and National Skills Commission Employment Projections to 2026.


Earnings and hours

Working arrangements

  • Around 16% of people employed as Waiters work full-time hours, in all their jobs combined. This is 50 percentage points below the all jobs average (66%).

    Full-time workers work an average of 42 hours per week in their main job. This is similar to the all jobs average (44 hours per week).

    Median full-time earnings are $1,000 per week, this is much lower than the all jobs median ($1,593):

    • 3 in 4 workers earn more than $979
    • 1 in 4 earn more than $1,143

    Median hourly earnings are $28, this is lower than the all jobs median ($41 per hour).

    Sources: Full-time share and full-time hours: ABS, 2016 Census, customised report. Compared to the all jobs average. Full-time median earnings and median hourly earnings: ABS, Survey of Employee Earnings and Hours, May 2021. Compared to all jobs median.

Weekly Earnings (Before Tax)

Source: Based on ABS Survey of Employee Earnings and Hours, May 2021, Customised Report. Median weekly total cash earnings for full-time non-managerial employees paid at the adult rate. Earnings are before tax and include amounts salary sacrificed. Earnings can vary greatly depending on the skills and experience of the worker and the demands of the role. These figures should be used as a guide only, not to determine a wage rate.
Earnings Waiters All Jobs Average
Full-Time Earnings 1,000 1,593
Total Earnings 0 0

Source: Based on ABS Survey of Employee Earnings and Hours, May 2021, Customised Report. Median weekly total cash earnings for full-time non-managerial employees paid at the adult rate. Earnings are before tax and include amounts salary sacrificed. Earnings can vary greatly depending on the skills and experience of the worker and the demands of the role. These figures should be used as a guide only, not to determine a wage rate.


Industries

Main industries

1
Accommodation and Food Services
92.8%
2
Arts and Recreation Services
2.9%
3
Retail Trade
1.3%
4
Manufacturing
1.0%
5
Other industries
2.1%

Regions

Employment across Australia

NSW

30.3% All occupations: 31.6%

VIC

28.0% All occupations: 25.6%

QLD

19.5% All occupations: 20.0%

SA

7.3% All occupations: 7.0%

WA

9.5% All occupations: 10.8%

TAS

2.5% All occupations: 2.0%

NT

0.7% All occupations: 1.0%

ACT

2.3% All occupations: 1.9%

Employment by State and Territory (% Share)

State Waiters All Jobs Average
NSW 30.3 31.6
VIC 28.0 25.6
QLD 19.5 20.0
SA 7.3 7.0
WA 9.5 10.8
TAS 2.5 2.0
NT 0.7 1.0
ACT 2.3 1.9



Worker profile

Age and gender

Age In Years
22
All Jobs Average is 40
Female Share
76%
All Jobs Average is 48%
  • The median age of Waiters is 22 years. This is younger than the all jobs average of 40 years.

    A large share of workers are aged 20 to 24 years.

    Females make up 76% of the workforce. This is 28 percentage points above the all jobs average of 48%.

    Source: Based on ABS Census 2016, Customised Report. Age profile and gender share compared to the all jobs average.

Age Profile (% Share)

Source: Based on ABS Census 2016, Customised Report. Age profile of workers in this job compared to the all jobs average.
Age Bracket Waiters All Jobs Average
15-19 30.1 5.0
20-24 32.5 9.3
25-34 21.3 22.9
35-44 7.2 22.0
45-54 5.1 21.6
55-59 1.9 9.0
60-64 1.1 6.0
65 and Over 0.6 4.2
Median Age 22 40

Source: Based on ABS Census 2016, Customised Report. Age profile of workers in this job compared to the all jobs average.


Employment Pathways

Education, training and experience

Formal qualifications are not essential to work as a Waiter. Although some workers have a Vocational Education and Training (VET) qualification in a related area like hospitality.

Visit

  • My Skills to compare Vocational Education and Training (VET) courses, providers and student outcomes.
  • AAPathways website to explore Tourism, Travel and Hospitality VET training pathways.

Highest Level of Education (% Share)

Source: ABS Census 2016, Customised Report. Highest qualification completed by workers in this job (in any field of study). Qualifications needed by new workers might be different from the qualifications of workers already in the job.
Type of Qualification Waiters All Jobs Average
Post Graduate/Graduate Diploma or Graduate Certificate 2.6 10.1
Bachelor degree 13.3 21.8
Advanced Diploma/Diploma 8.3 11.6
Certificate III/IV 10.0 21.1
Year 12 44.3 18.1
Year 11 8.4 4.8
Year 10 and below 13.2 12.5

Source: ABS Census 2016, Customised Report. Highest qualification completed by workers in this job (in any field of study). Qualifications needed by new workers might be different from the qualifications of workers already in the job.


Skills and Knowledge

Employers look for Waiters who connect with others, provide good customer service and are well presented and reliable.

Skills

Skills can be improved through training or experience.

  • 45%

    Critical thinking

    Thinking about the pros and cons of different ways to solve a problem.

  • 41%

    Monitoring

    Keeping track of how well work is progressing so you can make changes or improvements.

  • 39%

    Serving others

    Looking for ways to help people.

  • 39%

    Coordination with others

    Being adaptable and coordinating work with other people.

  • 36%

    Active listening

    Listening to others, not interrupting, and asking good questions.

  • 36%

    Social perceptiveness

    Understanding why people react the way they do.

  • 34%

    Learning strategies

    Figuring out the best way to teach or learn something new.

  • 32%

    Speaking

    Talking to others.

  • 32%

    Judgment and decision making

    Figuring out the pros and cons of different options and choosing the best one.

  • 32%

    Persuasion

    Talking people into changing their minds or their behaviour.

  • 32%

    Instructing

    Teaching people how to do something.

  • 32%

    Reading comprehension

    Reading work related information.

  • 30%

    Active learning

    Being able to use what you have learnt to solve problems now and again in the future.

  • 30%

    Time management

    Managing your own and other peoples' time to get work done.

  • 29%

    Complex problem solving

    Noticing a problem and figuring out the best way to solve it.

  • 29%

    Negotiation

    Bringing people together and trying to sort out their differences.

  • 29%

    Writing

    Writing things for co-workers or customers.

  • 25%

    Management of personnel resources

    Motivating, developing, and directing people as they work, and choosing the best people for the job.

  • 21%

    Systems evaluation

    Measuring how well a system is working and how to improve it.

  • 18%

    Mathematics

    Using maths to solve problems.


Knowledge

These are important topics, subjects or knowledge areas.

  • 59%

    Customer and personal service

    Understanding customer needs, providing good quality service, and measuring customer satisfaction.

  • 44%

    Food production

    Planting, growing, and harvesting food (both plant and animal), including storage and handling.

  • 41%

    English language

    English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.

  • 39%

    Sales and marketing

    Showing, promoting, and selling including marketing strategy, product demonstration, sales techniques, and sales control systems.

  • 33%

    Education and training

    Curriculum and training design, teaching and instruction for individuals and groups, and the measurement of training effects.

  • 32%

    Mathematics

    Arithmetic, algebra, geometry, calculus, or statistics.

  • 31%

    Public safety and security

    Use of equipment, rules and ideas to protect people, data, property, and institutions.

  • 31%

    Psychology

    Human behaviour; differences in ability, personality, and interests; learning and motivation; research methods; assessing and treating disorders.

  • 28%

    Computers and electronics

    Circuit boards, processors, chips, electronic equipment, and computer hardware and software, including applications and programming.

  • 27%

    Production and processing

    Raw materials, production processes, quality control, costs, and ways of making and distributing goods.

  • 25%

    Personnel and human resources

    Recruiting and training people, managing pay and other entitlements (like sick leave), and negotiating pay and conditions.

  • 24%

    Administration and management

    Business principles involved in strategic planning, leadership, and coordinating people and resources.

  • 22%

    Communications and media

    Media production, communication, and dissemination. Includes written, spoken, and visual media.

  • 21%

    Transportation

    Moving people or goods by air, rail, sea, or road.

  • 20%

    Economics and accounting

    Economics and accounting, the financial markets, banking and checking and reporting of financial data.

  • 17%

    Law and government

    How our laws and courts work. Government rules and regulations, and the political system.

  • 14%

    Sociology and anthropology

    Group behaviour and dynamics, societal trends and influences, human migrations, ethnicity, cultures and their history and origins.

  • 14%

    Clerical

    Word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office work.

  • 14%

    Telecommunications

    Transmission, broadcasting, switching, control, and operation of telecommunications systems.

  • 11%

    Foreign language

    Foreign (non-English) language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition and grammar, and pronunciation.


Abilities

Workers use these physical and mental abilities..

  • 46%

    Speech recognition

    Identify and understand the speech of another person.

  • 46%

    Trunk strength

    Use your abdominal and lower back muscles a number of times without 'giving out' or fatiguing.

  • 45%

    Speech clarity

    Speak clearly so others can understand you.

  • 43%

    Oral comprehension

    Listen to and understand what people say.

  • 43%

    Oral expression

    Communicate by speaking.

  • 41%

    Extent flexibility

    Bend, stretch, twist, or reach with your body, arms, and/or legs.

  • 41%

    Near vision

    See details that are up-close (within a few feet).

  • 39%

    Memorization

    Remember things like words, numbers, pictures, and procedures.

  • 39%

    Problem spotting

    Notice when something is wrong or is likely to go wrong, even if you can't solve the problem.

  • 37%

    Stamina

    Exercise for a long time without getting winded or out of breath.

  • 37%

    Manual dexterity

    Quickly move your hand to grasp, manipulate, or assemble objects.

  • 37%

    Multitasking

    Do two or more things at the same time.

  • 36%

    Whole body coordination

    Move your arms, legs, and body together.

  • 34%

    Arm-hand steadiness

    Keep your hand or arm steady.

  • 34%

    Multilimb coordination

    Use your arms and/or legs at the same time while sitting, standing, or lying down.

  • 34%

    Selective attention

    Pay attention to something without being distracted.

  • 34%

    Static strength

    Lift, push, pull, or carry things.

  • 32%

    Deductive reasoning

    Use general rules to find answers or solve problems logically.

  • 32%

    Finger dexterity

    Put together small parts with your fingers.

  • 32%

    Sorting or ordering

    Order or arrange things in a pattern or sequence (e.g., numbers, letters, words, pictures, mathematical operations).


Activities

These are kinds of activities workers regularly do in this job.

  • 66%

    Working with the public

    Greeting or serving customers, clients or guests, and public speaking or performing.

  • 57%

    Handling and moving objects

    Using hands and arms in handling, installing, positioning, moving and manipulating objects.

  • 56%

    Building good relationships

    Building good working relationships and keeping them over time.

  • 55%

    Doing physically active work

    Use your arms, legs and whole body, such as climbing, lifting, balancing, walking, stooping, and handling objects.

  • 51%

    Influencing people

    Convincing people to buy something or to change their minds or actions.

  • 50%

    Communicating within a team

    Giving information to co-workers by telephone, in writing, or in person.

  • 42%

    Negotiating and resolving conflicts

    Handling complaints and disagreements, and negotiating with people.

  • 41%

    Looking for changes over time

    Comparing objects, actions, or events. Looking for differences between them or changes over time.

  • 40%

    Researching and investigating

    Looking for, getting and understanding different kinds of information.

  • 40%

    Coordinating the work of a team

    Getting members of a group to work together to finish a task.

  • 39%

    Training and teaching others

    Understanding the needs of others, developing training programs, and teaching or instructing.

  • 38%

    Working with computers

    Using computers to program, write software, set up functions, enter data, or process information.

  • 37%

    Coaching and developing others

    Working out the needs of others and coaching, mentoring, or helping them to improve.

  • 37%

    Communicating with the public

    Giving information to the public, business or government by telephone, in writing, or in person.

  • 37%

    Keeping your knowledge up-to-date

    Keeping up-to-date with technology and new ideas.

  • 36%

    Helping and caring for others

    Providing personal assistance, medical attention, or emotional support.

  • 35%

    Making decisions and solving problems

    Using information to work out the best solution and solve problems.

  • 35%

    Assessing and evaluating things

    Working out the value, importance, or quality of things, services or people.

  • 34%

    Leading and encouraging a team

    Encouraging and building trust, respect, and cooperation among team members.

  • 30%

    Monitoring people, processes and things

    Checking objects, actions, or events, and keeping an eye out for problems.


Interests and demands

Learn about the daily activities, and physical and social demands faced by workers. Explore the values and work styles that workers rate as most important.

Interests

Interests are the style or type of work we prefer to do. All interest areas are shown below.

  • 81%

    Helping

    Working with people. Helping or providing service to others.

  • 76%

    Enterprising

    Starting up and carrying out projects. Leading people and making many decisions. Sometimes require risk taking and often deal with business.

  • 71%

    Administrative

    Following set procedures and routines. Working with numbers and details more than with ideas, usually following rules.

  • 62%

    Practical

    Practical, hands-on work. Often with plants and animals, or materials like wood, tools, and machinery.

  • 33%

    Creative

    Working with forms, designs and patterns. Often need self-expression and can be done without following rules.

  • 14%

    Analytical

    Ideas and thinking. Searching for facts and figuring out problems in your head.


Values

Work values are important to a person’s feeling of satisfaction. All six values are shown below.
  • 86%

    Relationships

    Serve and work with others. Workers usually get along well with each other, do things to help other people, and are rarely pressured to do things that go against their sense of right and wrong.

  • 48%

    Support

    Supportive management that stands behind employees. Workers are treated fairly by their company, they are supported by management, and have supervisors who train them well.

  • 33%

    Achievement

    Results oriented. Workers are able to use their strongest abilities, giving them a feeling of accomplishment.

  • 33%

    Independence

    Work alone and make decisions. Workers are able to try out their own ideas, make decisions on their own, and work with little or no supervision.

  • 29%

    Recognition

    Advancement and the potential to lead. Workers are recognised for the work that they do, they may give directions and instructions to others, and they are looked up to in their company and their community.

  • 29%

    Working conditions

    Job security and good working conditions. There is usually a steady flow of interesting work, and the pay and conditions are generally good.


Demands

The physical and social demands that workers face most often are shown below:
  • 99%

    Contact with people

    Have contact with people by telephone, face-to-face, or any other way.

  • 95%

    Face-to-face discussions

    Talk with people face-to-face.

  • 94%

    Walking and running

    Spend time walking and running.

  • 93%

    Spend time standing

    Spend time standing at work.

  • 90%

    Teamwork

    Work with people in a group or team.

  • 82%

    Physically close to people

    Work physically close to other people.

  • 82%

    Telephone

    Talk on the telephone.

  • 80%

    Contact with the public

    Work with customers or the public.

  • 79%

    Indoors, heat controlled

    Work indoors with access to heating or cooling.

  • 75%

    Frequent decision making

    Frequently make decisions that impact other people.

  • 74%

    Freedom to make decisions

    Have freedom to make decision on your own.

  • 73%

    Using your hands to handle, control, or feel

    Spend time using your hands to handle, control, or feel objects, tools or controls.

  • 71%

    Impact of decisions

    Make decisions that have a large impact on other people.

  • 70%

    Being exact or accurate

    Be very exact or highly accurate.

  • 69%

    Angry or unpleasant people

    Deal with unpleasant, angry, or rude people.

  • 68%

    Making repetitive motions

    Spend time making repetitive motions.

  • 68%

    Unstructured work

    Have freedom to decide on tasks, priorities, and goals.

  • 65%

    Lead or coordinate a team

    Lead others to do work activities.

  • 60%

    Responsible for outcomes

    Take responsibility for the results of other people's work.

  • 59%

    Health and safety of others

    Take responsibility for the health and safety of others.

Occupational Information Network
O*NET is a trademark of the U.S. Department of Labor, Employment and Training Administration.
The skills and importance ratings on this page are derived from the US Department of Labor O*NET Database Version 21.2, 35-3031.00 - Waiters and Waitresses.


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